A large number of Teachers Training Institutes(TTIs) were estblished a few ylears ago in Tamilnadu and a very large nmber of elementary and high school teachers were trained. Most of the “teachers” have not got jobs and many of them have already waited for even 10 years to get jobs. Consequently the number of candidates opting for these courses has decreased and some of the institutes have already been closed causing loss of lot of money.Individuals’ loss ultimately is loss to the state.
On the other hand,not many Industrial Training Institutes(ITIs) were established and not many technicians were “produced”.Factories and common people are finding it difficult to secure the services of technicians like electricians, carpenters, fitters, mechanics welders,plumbers etc. Their services have become prohibitively costly. A lot of work remains undone on account of shortage of technicians’
It was not difficult for the government to anticipate the approximate or even maximum number of teachers required in future. Government should have discouraged people from establishing excessive number of institutes. Government should also have given advisories to the people about the anticipated number of teachers required so that they would have thought many times before going in for the teachers training course.
Similarly it was not difficult for the government to anticipate the boom in industrial activity (from the number of applications for setting up factories),production of automobiles, construction activities etc. Govenment should have itself established additional ITIs and encouraged private sector to establish the ITIs.
To make matters worse,government has bestowed so many free things to th people and to some extent was responsible for the increase in general wages that existing technicians do not find it necessary to work for more than a few days in a month to earn enough to meet the expenses. The shortage of technicians has become more acute and economic acivities have come to remain low.
If only the government had undertaken manpower planning the economy would have grown much higher. One hopes that at least now the government undertakes the required manpower planning and also encourage people to work longer by withdrawing free supplies.
The mandate of the Employment Exchanges should be extended from just sponsoring candidates against vacancies to actively associatig themselves in training the manpower for anticipated vacancies in various sectors of th economy.
In the past -in 50s and 60s,the minimum qualification required for admission to most of the trades in Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) is pass in 8th Class,while at present only for a very few-one or two-courses the minimum qalification required is 8th Class,while for the rest, it is 10th class. Similarly one could go for Teachers Training course after passing 8th class, to be able to teach in primary schools, while at present it is pass in 12th class. With a view to bring more people to work force, it would be useful if minimum qualification required for admission to ITIs and Teachers’ Training Institutes is brought down to 8th class.
Similarly,there was a category of doctors who spent just 3 years after school education to become doctors. This course should be revived.
The school education now consists of 5 years of primary education, 3 years higher elementary education,2 years high school and 2 years higher secondary school edcation, making a total of 12 years. This can be reduced initially to 11 years and later to 10 years. One should go for university education- degree course in Arts, science,medicine etc after completing 10 years of school education. Thls will make available to the country about 10% additional work force.
In India, life expectancey at birth has increased to about 67 years now (2011)from around 32 in 1951. Correspondingly the retirement age should also go up. It would probably be just to increase retirement age to 65.This alone will increase the strength of the work force by about 10% – 15%
The larger the work force the higher the GDP of the country. One of the reasons for higher Per capita GDP in developed countries is that over 65% of the population there work.Similarly one of the reasons for lower Per capita GDP in developing countries paticlarly the ones in Africa is that there the work force is less than 50% of the population,mainly due to high birth rates.
There is need for a wide and intense public debate on India’s membership of various regional and other forums like BRICS. Some of the points to be debated are:
1.Whether BRICS will push up Russia and China to more prominent roles on par with that of United States in world affairs
2.Mmbership of fora like BRICS diverts attention from bing focussed on other imprtant and urgent issues
3.There is not much comonality of interests between India and some other BRICS members. Increasing gold prices benefit Soth Africa,Russia and China who are major prodcers while it badly affects India, which is a large importer.
4. Increae in oil prices is against India’s interests, but to be on the other side of US,Russia and China often take positions fabourable to oil exporting Arab countries.
5.Rupee trade agreements were in practice decades ago between India and countries like East European contries, Egypt. India does not have to be member of BRICS to practic it again and with any country to increase trade
6. Extending more credit in Indian Rupees to developing contries will lead to increase in India’s exorts.
7.. To increase exports and also imports, India should become a trading nation like Singapore, UAE,Hong Kong etc.to emerge as one of the top 5 importers/exprters. Indian Missions in BRICS countries can play a larger role to forge closer relations even without the existence of BRICS forum
8.India’s inerests and concerns appear to correspond to those of US in matters like fight
against terrorism, nuclear programme of new countries, democracy, individual’s freedom, fundamental rights etc.
9.The common futures which exist between these countries may not continue in future also.
In India Rs.25 can get one kilogram of good quality rice. In United States of America US$ 1 can buy one kg of comparable quality of rice. The rice being same in both cases, US$1 should be equal to Rs.25. But one can get in the banks or elsewhere about Rs.50 for 1 US$. This means that Indian Rupee is undervalued by 2 times. In some other cases 1 US$ may be equal to Rs.50 or Rs.20 or so. When we take the value of the total production of goods and services, i.e. GDP.we get an idea of how much the currency of a country is undervalued or overvalued. International Financial organisations like IMF, compute the GDP of a country both in nominal terms ie. on the basis of rates of exchange and on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms. From these figures we find that while currencies of most of the developed countries are overvalued, the currencies of the developing countries are generally undervalued.
The major countries whose currencies are undervalued are:
1.India by 2.8 times
2.Iran by 2.2 times
3.Taiwan by 2.2 times
4.China by 1.9 times
5.Mexico by 1.7 times
6.Russia by 1.6 times
7.South Korea by 1.6 times
8.Poland by 1.6 times
9.Turkey by 1.6 times
10.Indonesia by 1.6times
The overvalued major currencies are those of:
1.Australis 1.4 times
2.Canada 1.2 times
3.Japan 1.2 times
4.Italy 1.2 times
5.France 1.2 times
In the past Indian Rupee was undervalued by 3-4 times. As the economy expands,the currency becomes stronger. May be in the coming years, as the economy expands,Indian Rupee may not be so much undervalued as now. This will mean that the imported goods may not be so much costly as now.