If the owner/company does not invest capital, workers do not get employment and earn wages. If the workers do not work, owner/company does  not get profit. There are people who think that excess(more than reasonable) profit should be distributed among the workers. Some others think that excess profit is due to the company charging higher than the reasonable price and that prices should be reduced so that the profits of the company are reasonable and the consumers are not exploited. There is yet another view that the government should increase the tax rates or new taxes should be imposed. All the views seem to be correct.The point to be considered and decided is which action will expedite development of the country as a whole. Going by the experience, government getting more taxes is not going to help the country much as benefits of its schemes do not reach the people in full and often result in wasteful and unproductive work. As the number of consumers is too large, the price reduction can only be negligible and the consumers will not feel the benefit.As regards increase in wages/payment of bonus to workers, this will increase demand for products which may lead to higher  production and higher GDP. However, if the workers are already getting reasonable salaries, they should not get additional amount.The only option left is to allow the company to retain the excess profits, so that it can expand its existing factory or set up new factories. However, it should be made clear that new taxes are not imposed only if the profits are used for expansion of the existing factory or setting  up of a new factory, thereby generating employment, increasing production and thus  contributing to the expansion of  GDP of the country..




Borrowing even from friends with large money
is wrong if without interest any

Contributing atleast labour to those who help with cash
is the character of people of culture class

Who think not exploiting others while having ability
and ample opportunity are examples of nobility

Real affection and culture do not differentiate
nationality, race, language,gender or age

Lazy people’s success and hard workers’ defeat
can be whatelse if not fate?

Happiness in giving, reluctance in taking is nature
of the people of highly developed culture




Onion- price should be around Rs.30/kg


Onion is cultivated on an area of 43 million hectares in the world. The production is about 86 million tonnes with an yield of about 20 tonnes/ha. India has the largest area of 1.1 million ha or over 25% of world acreage under onion. However, India’s contribution to world’s production is only about 16 million MT or about 18%. The yield in India is only about 15MT/ha against about 25MT/ha in China. Countries like Australia, Austria, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain and USA have yields of over 50 MT/ha.

The production in India is low as the farmers do not get remunerative price. The consumer price of RS.50 or Rs.60/kg is not at all high. But unfortunately there is hue and cry from political parties, trade unions and the consumers against this price. People should be allowed to be used to this price.

India exports onions at about US$400 per MT or Rs.24 per kg. If the farmers get price of Rs.30 per Kg, there will be incentive for farmers to grow more and supply to the local and foreign markets. There is a demand for onions in USA, Brazil etc.

Rates of Exchange and Exports


It is generally believed that when a currency is upvalued(revalued) it would affect exports as the export items would become costlier. This is not really true. When the currency is revalued, imports become cheaper and cost of living comes down. The local currency gets strengthened. In 2005, Chinese Yuan RENMINBI(CNY) was USD 1 = CNY 8.09. Since then the CNY has appreciated and now USD 1 = CNY 6.09. With the appreciation of CNY exports did not decrease. On the contrary, exports from China when up from USD 939 billion in 2006 to USD 2,057 billion in 2012. Indian exports also went up from USD 122 billion in 2006 to USD 298 billion in 2012. The Indian Rupee also depreciated from USD 1 = Rs. 45 to USD 1 = Rs. 60. Here the depreciation is not the main reason for the increase in exports. Even without the deprecation the exports went up to USD 198 billion in 2008. So while fixing the rate of exchange the purchasing power of the respective currencies should be taken into account. The main contributing factor for increase in exports is surplus production, lower cost of production and the quality of products. A currency should not be allowed to depreciate thinking that this would contribute to increase in exports. The rate of exchange between Indian Rupee and US Dollar should be USD 1 = Rs. 20 or Rs. 25.  


Author: Singharan Govindan

Food Security-production of food grains should increase


Food Security is wrongly understood by planners. Food security means keeping adequate stock of food grains in the market. While countries where climatic and other conditions are not favourable for agriculture, the governments should ensure adequate stock in the market by facilitating or directly importing food grains. In countries like India food security means facilitating production of adequate food grains by making farming a profitable profession i.e. by ensuring fair prices for agricultural produce. At the same time government should ensure work with fair wages for all adult people. Even the disabled should do jobs according to their ability. The only fields where government should provide services free of cost or at subsidized rates are health and education. This is because, these services at times can become unaffordable for people.Food grains need not be supplied at subsidised rates.

Economy can grow only when the production of goods and services grow. This can happen only when all adults work.

Promoting consumption of milk in India and other countries


India is the largest producers of milk in the world with production of about 120 million tons (2011). The per capita production comes to only about 100kg per year. USA, the second largest producer of milk with a production of around 90 million tonnes has a per capita production of about 300 kgs while countries like Germany and France produce about 400 kg per head per year.

Milk is one of the few items in which India has higher per capita production than China whose per capita production is only about 30kg. India with a very large vegetarian population should increase per capita consumption considerably. However, with low purchasing power of people, India may become surplus in milk within a few years if the present rate of increase in production is maintained.

India and Pakistan are the major producers of buffalo milk. Production of goat milk is negligible in the world.

India needs to take steps to increase consumption of milk because of its nutritional value. There should be increased use of milk and milk products not only in sweets but also in other dishes. Use of milk and milk products should be promoted in countries like China and Vietnam to whom India could export. Once the Chinese and Vietnamese get used to sweets, there will be huge demand for milk and milk products.

Production, yield and per capita availability of fruits


Excerpts from “Simple Alternate Development Strategy”

“India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world behind Brazil In 1991,it produced 28 million MT or 8% of the total world prodution of 348 million MT. Per capita production of fruits in India was 33kg/year against ….65kgin the world. India produces mainly mangoes(10 million MT)and banana(6.4 million MT). It does not produce much of the other fruits which are major ones in the world like grapes, oranges, pine apples etc. For example, its production of grapes at 314000 MT in 1991 was only 0.5% of the total global producion of 57 million MT. However, in grapes, the yield is significant at 20.9 MT/hectare against…world aveage of 6.8 MT. This is because, the entire area under grapes cultivtion is under irrigation. more than anything else viz high yieldig varieties, fertilizers,pesticides etc.though these are important inputs. Major producers of grapes are Italy, France, former USSR and Spain,the four together accounting for 47% of the world production.

Another major fruit in the world is orange. The world production in 1991 was 55 million MT,closely behind that of grapes. India is not a significant producter.Its productio of 1.89 million MT accounts for only 3.4% of world production. The major producers are Brazil (34%) and China (9.7%)

Banana is another major fruit with a production of 47.7 million MT in 1991.The leading producers are India (13.4%), Brazil(11.8%),Philippines(7.4%), Indonesia(5.0%) and China(4.4%). In spite of being the largest producer of bananas, the per capita availability is only 7.3% kg per year while the world per capita availability is 8.8 kg and the per capita production of the rest of the. world(i.e,excluding India)is 9.14kg…..

The fourth important fruit in the world is apple whose production in 1991 amounted to 39.4 million MT.India’s production of 1.02 million MT comes to only 2.6% of world production. The major producers in the world are former USSR(15.2%),China(12.2%) and USA(11.4%)…..

Mango is the fifth important fruit in the world, production of which amounted to 16.12 milliom MT. Out of this, India’s production was 9.70 million MT i.e. 60% of the world production. Mango is perhaps the only item in which India has a dominat presence in the world. The per capita poduction comes to 11kg per year.

In pine-apple, India’s contribution was 700.000MT to the world production of 10.08 million MT. It comes to 6.9% ofthe world production.”

India’s production of fruits has gone up now to around 32 million MT, but its share in the world remains more or less same i.e.8%. India needs to double its production of fruits,if Indians are to consume on an average as much fruits as the rest of the people in the world.