During the years 2001-2011, India’s total population increased by about 18% to 1.21 billion. However, child population in the age group 0-6 years declined by about 3% (5 million) to 159 million during this period. All major states including UP, Maharashtra,West Bengal, MP , Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Gujarat registered decline in child population. Bihar and Andhra Pradesh are exceptions. This decline in child population indicates that there will be lower population growth during 2011-2021. Some of the states like Kerala and Tamilnadu may register negative natural growth though with migration from other states, overall population in 2021 may not be lower than in 2011. Longevity will go up. The decadal growth is likely to be around 10%. The nursery, primary and middle schools in the country, may not get enough students and some of these schools may have to be closed in rural areas where the decline in child population is more pronounced because of migration to urban areas.The focus of the government should shift from universal education to quality education-from opening new schools to upgrading the standard of education. There will be need to devote attention on old people.